Weeds Gone To Seed

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Learn how to kill weed seeds in soil to prevent weeds and other invasive grasses from continuing to sprout every year. Weeds can be safely added to a compost pile if you make sure temperatures are high enough to kill the seeds and roots. How to Cut Weeds After Seed Heads Appear. Weeds reproduce rapidly when they grow seed heads, and they can become an eyesore quickly as well as rob your garden and lawn of vital nutrients. Seed heads contain mature seeds that typically are spread by wind and insects. Ideally, weeds are removed before the appearance of …

How to Kill Weed Seeds in Soil [5 Easy Methods]

To kill weed seeds in soil you will have to apply one or more of the following methods:

  • Heat soil to temperatures high enough to kill weeds seeds
  • Force seeds to sprout and destroy growing weeds
  • Apply chemical or natural weed killers that prevent weeds from sprouting
  • Use flame weeding to destroy weeds and seeds at once
  • Layer mulch in garden areas to suppress weed sprouting and attract insects that eat seeds

With this arsenal of tricks for killing weed seeds before they sprout, you can stop the spread of weeds in both your lawn and garden.

Table of Contents

5 Tips for Killing Weed Seeds

Rather than spending time and effort battling weeds as they sprout, attack weeds at the source by killing weed seeds. Each of these methods destroys weed seeds, which ensures you won’t have to battle recurring weed invasions. Try these ways to get rid of weed seeds yourself.

Solarization

Soil solarization is a very powerful method for killing weed seeds. Weed seeds begin to die if soil temperatures surpass 108 degrees, with full seed death ensured by soil surface temperatures of 140 degrees or more. Solarization uses clear plastic tarps to trap heat at the soil surface, killing weed seeds within the tarped area. To solarize an area, follow these steps:

  • Clear the area of all vegetation through use of a hoe or other garden implement. Remove any woody stumps
  • Till the soil to further break up any weed root systems left behind.
  • Rake away all vegetation residue
  • Water the tilled and cleared soil with a garden hose until it is damp.
  • Lay a sheet of clear plastic over the area. Weigh it down tightly at the edges
  • Leave the plastic in place for at least two months.

Solarization is the best method to reclaim a weedy garden or other area. It is a “clean slate” for your soil, because seeds will be destroyed by the solar heat trapped beneath the plastic.

It is typically tough to implement solarization in large areas and is not usually suitable for use in lawns, where you may want to preserve grass or other plants. Pre-emergent weed killers and flame weeding are much better for use in lawns.

Till and Kill

Weed seeds can lie dormant in soil for decades and are only “activated” when brought to within an inch of the surface. One method to rid soil of dormant weed seeds is to force these dormant seeds to sprout, then attack them with a powerful natural or chemical weed killer. To do this:

  • In spring, till the affected area. Tilling brings dormant seeds to the surface
  • Water the area for 1–2 weeks with a sprinkler or soaker hose
  • When weeds begin to sprout, apply the weed killer of your choice
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This is another “clean slate” method, where you force weed seeds to show themselves and then kill young weeds before they mature and cast seeds. Because of the invasive tilling step, it is not best used in areas with desirable grasses and plants.

Use Pre-Emergent Weed Killer

Pre-emergent weed killer stops weeds in their tracks. It works by attacking weed seeds just as they begin to germinate, killing them before they even poke above the surface. It’s a weed killer so good, the only sign it’s working is that there will be no new weeds at all.

Tips for Composting Weeds

Colleen Vanderlinden is an organic gardening expert and author of the book “Edible Gardening for the Midwest.” She has grown fruits and vegetables for over 12 years and professionally written for 15-plus years. To help move the organic gardening movement forward, she started an organic gardening website, “In the Garden Online,” in 2003 and launched the Mouse & Trowel Awards in 2007 to recognize gardening bloggers.

Amanda Rose Newton holds degrees in Horticulture, Biochemistry, Entomology, and soon a PhD in STEM Education. She is a board-certified entomologist and volunteers for USAIDs Farmer to Farmer program. Currently, she is a professor of Horticulture, an Education Specialist, and pest specialist.

David Freund / Getty Images

Compost is a great way to recycle organic material in your garden. All those spent flower blossoms, fall leaves, dead plants, grass clippings—even non-meat kitchen scraps—can be transformed into a great soil amendment and nutritious mulch, simply by throwing them into a heap and allowing the refuse to decompose naturally.

Composting Issues

Done correctly, composting creates a sterile organic material that does nothing but good things for your garden and the plants in it. However, nearly every gardener who practices composting has occasionally experienced “volunteer” plants sprouting up in the garden where the compost has been spread.

This can actually be rather charming when the volunteers are tiny impatiens seedlings, tomato plants, or even pumpkins that volunteer because last Halloween/s jack o’ lanterns were added to the compost heap. It’s far less charming when the volunteer plants are hundreds of dandelions or tiny sprigs of bindweed or crabgrass that get into the garden via the compost you spread.

A gardener who experiences such an explosion of volunteer weeds may well swear off composting altogether, or at least stop adding weed material to the compost pile. To be clear, there is no reason to stop composting weeds. With a slight adjustment to the composting process, you can ensure that weeds and their seeds will be killed completely and won’t be resurrected where you least want them .

How Weeds Survive

In an ideal compost heap, the temperatures generated by the breakdown of plant material can get quite warm, and if temperatures exceed 145 degrees Fahrenheit, pretty much all seeds and roots will be killed. However, if the temperatures do not get warm enough—or if a portion of the compost heap does not experience sufficiently high temperatures—seeds or perennial roots can survive the composting process. When these seeds or bits of root later reach your garden inside the compost, they can—and usually do—quickly germinate or take root again.

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How do you know if your compost is getting hot enough to kill all weeds? A variety of compost thermometers are available that can gauge the temperature of your pile. Experienced gardeners may simply thrust a hand into the pile. If it feels uncomfortably warm to the touch, it likely is warm enough to kill all seeds and roots in the pile.

Hot Composting

The classic method of composting—the method purists would call the “right” way—is known as hot composting. This simply means that you turn the pile regularly and allowing it to really heat up to 145 degrees Fahrenheit or more. A properly maintained hot compost pile will kill weed seeds, as well as many other pathogens, so you can compost weeds without having to worry about them popping up in your garden beds.

For hot composting to fully kill all weed seeds and roots, follow these tips:

  • Turn the pile frequently. All compost heaps have localized cool spots that are slow to break down. By mixing the pile frequently, you ensure that all material is achieving the necessary heat to kill the seeds and roots.
  • Give it time. Practiced correctly, hot composting involves processing a volume of material fully until it is fully decomposed. Don’t continue to add small amounts of additional material to the heap; start another heap while the first one breaks down completely. The compost is ready to spread when turning and mixing the pile no longer causes the compost to heat up.
  • Weed the garden before adding compost. Fresh compost is laden with nutrients, and if there are weeds growing in your garden, adding compost will simply nourish the weeds along with your garden plants. Make sure your garden is well weeded before adding fresh compost to the soil.

Cool Composting

So-called “cool composting” is a more informal style of composting. It is a passive method that doesn’t involve constant temperature monitoring and mixing. In cool composting, fresh material is constantly added to the top of the heap as the lower levels are breaking down into compost. In cool compost bins, gardeners periodically remove the prepared compost from the bottom of the pile as fresh material is constantly added to the top. Cool composting is an easier style, though it can take somewhat longer.

Here are some tips to keep a cool compost pile free of weeds:

  • Don’t compost pernicious weeds. There are certain perennial weeds that require lots of heat to kill, and if you don’t have the time for hot composting, it is best to keep them out of the compost pile altogether. In a cool compost pile, weeds to avoid include morning glory, buttercups, bermuda grass, oxalis, quackgrass, and crabgrass. Any garden plant that spreads by runners, such as mint or raspberry canes, should also be kept out of a cool compost pile.
  • Don’t compost weeds that have gone to seed. Most annual weeds pose no problems if they are added to a cool compost pile before they are mature and set seed. But throw those same dandelions into the pile after their flower heads have produced thousands of seeds, and you may experience a dandelion epidemic when that compost is later added to the garden. If you are cool composting, weeds that have gone to seed should be thrown in the trash, not added to the compost pile.
  • Prebake the weeds. Pretty much any plants, even the pernicious varieties that spread by runners, become safe for any compost pile if you heat them up to the temperature necessary to kills seeds and roots. There are a number of ways to do this. For example, you can solarize them by baking them inside a black plastic bag in the sun for a few days. Other gardeners bake weeds on a sheet of metal laid in the sun; once the weeds are baked to a dried crisp, they pose no risk in the compost heap. Some gardeners have even been known to keep an old microwave oven in the garage or garden shed, using it to “nuke” the weeds into oblivion by heating them until they steam before adding them to the compost heap.
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How to Cut Weeds After Seed Heads Appear

Weeds reproduce rapidly when they grow seed heads, and they can become an eyesore quickly as well as rob your garden and lawn of vital nutrients. Seed heads contain mature seeds that typically are spread by wind and insects. Ideally, weeds are removed before the appearance of their flowers that eventually release seeds. If some of them escape removal before they produce seed heads, they can be cut down. When you remove weeds with seed heads, you eliminate one of the biggest sources of weeds on your property.

Cut off weed flowers and seed heads using pruning shears, and dispose of them immediately. Cutting the flowers and seed heads rather than removing entire weed plants is ideal if you find weeds in your vegetable garden and don’t want to disturb your crops by yanking out whole weed plants. If the weeds contain large leaves that cover your plants, clip off all the weeds’ foliage so your crops receive more sunlight.

Cut weed plants to ground level with pruning shears or a lawnmower that has a mower bag. If you use a lawnmower, empty its mower bag into the trash immediately so that you do not inadvertently spread the weed seeds the next time you use the lawnmower.

Collect all of the cut weeds and seed heads with a rake, and dispose of them. Repeat the cutting process when the weeds grow and especially before they produce seed heads again.

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