Can CBD Help With GERD? Gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD) is caused by esophageal dysfunction and unregulated gastric acid secretion. Why Does CBD Oil Give Me Heartburn, GORD or GERD? (Here’s Reasons Why) Heart burn can be a very painful experience, especially if it’s something that happens to you on a regular basis. What
CBD Oil for GERD – August 2022
Frequent acid reflux can lead to gastroesophageal reflux disease ( GERD ). This condition is caused by stomach contents flowing back into the esophagus and the mouth.
Common symptoms of GERD include heartburn ( burning sensations in the chest), voice hoarseness, sore throat, coughing, and wheezing.
Over-the-counter medications that can treat GERD include antacids ( stomach acid neutralizer) and proton pump inhibitors (PPI), such as cimetidine and nizatidine (acid reducers).
However, these medications might produce adverse effects, such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, stomach pain, and neurotoxicity. Usually, these side effects were observed among elderly patients (6) . These factors are why some individuals are turning to alternative treatments. They can also be very cost-prohibitive over the long-term.
Currently, there is a lack of direct studies on CBD ’s efficacy in treating GERD .
However, existing studies have shown that CBD ’s activity on cannabinoid receptors in the endocannabinoid system (ECS) might provide several modulatory effects on gastric acid production, GI inflammation, and esophageal function (7) .
The ECS, which maintains balance by regulating bodily functions, is present in all vertebrates and mammals.
A 2016 review posted in the Asian Pacific Journal of Medicine mentioned that cannabinoid receptor (CBR) activities caused by CBD and THC might reduce gastric acid secretions (8) .
In the review, the author cited studies demonstrating how Cannabis sativa extract protected animal subjects from mucosal damage and gastric lesions (9) .
Cannabis sativa (hemp) is a plant rich in cannabinoids such as CBD and THC (10) .
The author concluded that gastric protective and anti-inflammatory properties of cannabinoids might be useful in treating GERD and peptic ulcer disease (11) .
Lower esophageal sphincter ( LES ) dysfunction is the principal cause for GERD . The dysfunction may be brought by transient LES relaxation or LES pressure (12) .
A n animal study posted by the British Pharmacological Society mentioned that CBR activities might modulate GI motility by reducing LES relaxation (13) .
Some researchers believe that gastric motility abnormalities might also be linked to the onset of GERD (14) .
A review published by the British Journal of Pharmacology mentioned that CBR activities might modulate upper and lower GI motility (15) .
Moreover, GERD is often associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Researchers mentioned that inflammatory cytokines might cause early inflammation of individuals with GERD (16) .
A study using animal and human biopsies have shown that CBD possesses anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects (17) .
The authors added that these therapeutic benefits might be useful in treating GI inflammation conditions (18) .
A cross-study from the American Journal of Physiology also observed these benefits . The authors concluded that CBD ’s activity on ECS receptors might modulate gut motility and reduce inflammatory diseases (19) .
Additionally, esophageal leakage is the primary mechanism of reflux-related cough and constriction of airways in the lungs (bronchoconstriction) (20) .
The European Journal of Pharmacology published an animal study demonstrating how receptor activation might reduce microleakage that causes bronchoconstriction (21) .
Lastly, researchers mentioned that GERD could be a significant source of anxiety and depression. A clinical study published by Cureus concluded that out of 258 patients, 41.4% suffered from depression, 34.4% suffered from anxiety, and 27.13% suffered depression and anxiety (22) .
A study released by Frontiers in Immunology acknowledged that CBD might improve mental health due to its anxiolytic and antidepressant properties (23) .
How CBD Oil Works to Help With GERD
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is studied for its role in maintaining homeostasis in the human body.
The ECS is composed of receptors that are spread across the human body. These receptors include the G-protein cannabinoid receptors , CB1 and CB2 (24) , and G-protein receptor 55 (GPR55) (25) .
These receptors can be found in the immune system, central nervous system , and gastrointestinal system (GI) (26) .
Researchers acknowledged that activating the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the ECS might influence bodily functions, resulting in potential therapeutic benefits (27) .
The presence of cannabinoid receptors in the GI system highlights the ECS’ role in modulating GI functions, health, gastric secretions, and inflammation (28) .
The CB1 receptor might have a role in modulating intestinal motility by reducing LES relaxation and promoting esophageal peristalsis (29) .
The author added that CB1 activation might reduce acid and intestinal fluid secretions (30) .
Aside from antisecretory effects , influencing of the ECS might also provide anti-inflammatory properties (31) .
CB2 is mostly distributed in the central nervous system . Researchers also found CB2 receptors in inflammatory tissues and cells in the gastrointestinal tract (32) .
Moreover, CB2 activation might further regulate GI tract motility and reduce the uptake of inflammatory diseases (33) .
Studies mention that CB2 activation might play a role in inhibiting microvascular leakage and bronchoconstriction on animal reflux models (34) .
A 2016 review mentioned that GPR55 might also be involved in GI motility. The authors indicated that the administration of a receptor agonist slowed down the gut transit in mice models (35) .
Modulatory effects can be triggered or stimulated by cannabinoids , such as cannabidiol ( CBD ), tetrahydrocannabinol ( THC ), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabigerol (CBG) (36) .
There is evidence that CBD was able to activate GPR55 in an animal study published by the British Journal of Pharmacology ( 37) .
Moreover, even with its low affinity to CB1 and CB2, CBD might also influence how other cannabinoids trigger the receptors. This mechanism allows for receptors to reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines (38) .
Cytokines are signaling proteins that modulate the body’s response to inflammation (39) .
Moreover, an in vivo study posted by the British Journal of Pharmacological attributed another cannabinoid , CBC, for its ability to reduce inflammation-induced hypermotility (40) .
The author continued that CBC’s ability to modulate GI motility warranted further studies on conditions, such as mucosal inflammation, gastric secretion, intestinal secretion, and visceral pain (41) .
Although existing studies acknowledged CBD ’s potential in influencing CBR activities, clinical trials are needed to prove CBD ’s efficacy on GERD symptoms .
The Pros and Cons of CBD Oil for GERD
- CBD might trigger CBR activities in the ECS system, thus, providing modulatory effects on the upper GI system (42) .
- CBD might trigger CBR activities and help reduce gastric acid secretions (43) .
- CBD might also trigger CBR activities and help decrease lower esophageal relaxation (44) .
- A study concluded that gastric protective and anti-inflammatory properties of cannabinoids , such as CBD and THC , might be useful in treating GERD (45) .
- CBD might help alleviate anxiety and depression of individuals suffering from GERD (46) .
- CBD has been acknowledged to have an excellent safety profile for human consumption (47) .
- There are no direct studies on how CBD might help with GERD symptoms . All existing studies are focused on CBD ’s potential activities on ECS receptors that might help modulate GERD symptoms .
- If used in high doses, CBD may cause side effects , such as drowsiness, loss of appetite, and dry mouth (48) .
- A recent animal study discovered that CBD might cause hepatotoxicity (liver damage) (49) .
How CBD Oil Compares to Alternative Treatments for GERD
Some individuals may prefer drinking chamomile tea to soothe their digestive tract . Studies have acknowledged that flavonoids in chamomile flowers provide anti-ulcerogenic properties. The flavonoids might also reduce acid output (50) .
Another alternative treatment option is ginger tea. A clinical study from Food, Science, and Nutrition mentioned that ginger consumption led to improved GI motility. The authors also acknowledged ginger’s anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer properties (51) .
Moreover, researchers acknowledged that deglycyrrhizinated licorice might alleviate acid reflux symptoms by suppressing acid production in the stomach (52) .
CBD might be similar to the alternative treatments mentioned due to its anti-inflammatory and acid-reducing properties (53) . CBD infused tea may also be taken instead of ginger or chamomile tea.
How to Choose the Best CBD Oil for GERD
The most recommended type of CBD oil for reducing GERD symptoms is full-spectrum .
Full-spectrum CBD oil contains all the major phytocannabinoids in hemp, such as CBD , CBC, CBG, CBN, and 0.3% THC . Together, these cannabinoids provide the individual with the “entourage effect.”
A review published in Frontiers in Plant Science mentioned that the entourage effect (or cannabis synergy) increased the primary activity of the endocannabinoid receptors (54) .
The author added that cannabis synergy helped explain why botanical medications display high efficacy compared to isolated compounds (55) .
The entourage effect was demonstrated by a controlled trial on patients with uncontrollable pain. In the study, THC -dominant opioid treatment failed to produce significant improvement compared to placebo (56) .
However, a whole-plant extract containing both THC and CBD produced remarkably better results (57) .
Broad-spectrum typically contains CBD , CBG, CBC, and CBN. Broad-spectrum is recommended for individuals who want to achieve the entourage effect without the presence of THC .
Lastly, individuals who cannot tolerate other cannabinoids may opt for CBD isolate. CBD isolate typically contains 99% pure CBD .
Additional tips to consider before buying CBD :
- Individuals may find more information about the CBD product by checking customer reviews and testimonials.
- Individuals with GERD must first consult with a gastroenterologist and discuss treatment options. Doctors may recommend prescription medications .
- Individuals intolerant to prescription medications side effects must discuss their plan to use CBD with their doctors.
CBD Dosage for GERD
There is a lack of scientific studies on the appropriate dosage when using CBD for GERD .
However, there are existing dosing studies that observed CBD ’s therapeutic benefits on other health conditions.
The British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology shared a review that collected data from clinical population dosing studies.
The authors mentioned that a dose range of less than 1 to 50 milligrams per kilogram a day was used on various medical conditions , including chronic pain, anxiety, epilepsy, and many more (58) .
A study shared in Pharmacology and Pharmacy mentioned that CBD has a bell-shaped curve response. The authors observed that a limited dose range was enough to achieve CBD ’s therapeutic benefits (59) .
This hypothesis was supported by another study posted in the Frontiers of Pharmacology . The study experimented with dosages using healthy volunteers with public speaking anxiety (60) .
The study found that a dose of 300mg was able to reduce anxiety scores better than 100 mg and 900mg dosings (61) .
However, individuals must always be cautious when using CBD . A recent study shared by Molecules observed that extremely high CBD doses caused hepatotoxicity in rat models (62) .
How to Take CBD Oil for GERD
The recommended CBD administration for GERD is through oral or sublingual delivery.
Oral administration methods may be available through capsules, softgels, and gummies. These methods may be taken with or without a meal.
CBD tinctures may be used for sublingual administration. Individuals may use an applicator to put a few drops of CBD under the tongue. CBD tinctures may have an earthy taste due to terpenes (aromatic compounds).
Both oral and sublingual administration were observed to provide plasma concentrations that lasted three to four hours after intake (63) .
Sublingual administration has also been observed to provide faster results when taken in a fasted state (empty stomach). However, high plasma concentrations were found when CBD is taken during a fed state (64) .
When using CBD for its pain-relieving properties, the recommended administration is through smoke or vapor inhalation. A quick delivery method is recommended for emergencies, such as heartburn .
A study posted by Biomedical and Environmental Mass Spectrometry shared that CBD inhalation can deliver plasma concentrations within three minutes (65) .
This evidence was supported by another study that acknowledged the lungs to be very efficient in delivering CBD into the bloodstream. The authors explained that vapor inhalation could deliver plasma concentrations within 10 minutes or less (66) .
However, individuals must be aware that smoke or vapor inhalation could have side effects , such as chest pain , shortness of breath, chemical irritation, and allergic reactions (67) . By and large, it is generally reasonable to assume that inhalation of volatile substances will cause some degree of pulmonary inflammation.
What Is the Difference Between Acid Reflux and GERD?
Acid reflux occurs when the LES muscle lets stomach acid flow back into the esophagus. This condition is caused by transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESR).
The sphincter muscle opens when food is swallowed. During TLESR, the sphincter opens even when the individual is not swallowing. Gastric acid in the esophagus may lead to inflammation (esophagitis).
GERD is a more severe form of acid reflux disease . Similar to GERD , acid reflux symptoms include heartburn , coughing, and wheezing.
Untreated GERD may also cause esophageal mucosal damage (68) and hiatal hernia (69) brought by prolonged gastric acid exposure on the lining of the esophagus . Moreover, individuals with GERD have a higher risk of esophageal cancer.
Aside from OTC and prescription medication , surgical intervention is also an option to treat GERD .
Studies have shown that 40% of GERD patients do not respond to antacid and acid reducers. Thus, some individuals opt for the anti-reflux laparoscopic procedure to improve their quality of life (70) .
However, GERD patients must meet qualifying criteria before they are considered for the procedure.
Risk Factors and Other Causes of GERD
Some lifestyle factors may contribute to the prevalence of GERD symptoms and cause further irritation to the esophagus. Risk factors and causes include:
- Eating large meals, spicy foods, and fatty foods
- Eating late at night
- Drinking alcoholic beverages and coffee
- Taking aspirin
- Hiatal hernia (bulging of the stomach)
How Is CBD Oil Different From Medical Marijuana?
CBD oil is extracted from Cannabis sativa (hemp) using CO 2 , steam, or a solvent. The extraction’s purpose is to create a concentrated version of Cannabis sativa . The cannabinoid concentrations can be added into carrier oils, edibles, capsules, and vape juice.
Also, the extraction methods allow the manufacturers to control the amount of THC .
In the United States, CBD products are prohibited from having more than 0.3% THC in the concentration.
In medical cannabis or marijuana, the plants are harvested and dried. Recreational and medicinal marijuana use is only legal in 11 US states (71) , while CBD is legal in all US states and territories (72) .
However, CBD remains unregulated. Brands are not held accountable for inconsistent cannabinoid concentrations. Thus, individuals are advised to research before buying CBD products .
Legitimate CBD brands provide customers with a certificate of analysis (COA). The COA is a third-party test result produced by ISO certified laboratories. The lab test for cannabinoid concentrations and the presence of harmful chemicals, such as heavy metals, pesticides, microbial, and fungal contaminants.
The COA is the determining factor if the product is safe for human and animal consumption.
Studies acknowledged that CBD might influence gastric production by triggering receptors in the ECS system. This activity might help in alleviating acid reflux symptoms (73) .
CBD ‘s receptor activities might help modulate the esophageal function and prevent gastric acid leakage into the esophagus (74) .
Moreover, cannabinoids , such as CBD and CBC, have been shown to possess gastric protective and anti-inflammatory properties that might alleviate GERD symptoms (75) .
CBD has also been acknowledged for its ability to reduce anxiety and depression (76) .
However, more clinical studies are needed to support CBD ’s efficacy in treating GERD .
Whatever treatment is chosen, one must make the necessary lifestyle changes to alleviate GERD symptoms .
Why Does CBD Oil Give Me Heartburn, GORD or GERD? (Here’s Reasons Why)
Heart burn can be a very painful experience, especially if it’s something that happens to you on a regular basis.
What causes this to happen and is there anything you can do to prevent it from happening?
Heartburn is a burning sensation in the chest caused by stomach acid that travels up towards the throat (acid reflux). If this is an ongoing issue it could be symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) or Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD)…depending on your geographical location of its spelling.
What happens if you have never experienced this until you have taken CBD? What are the reasons why this is happening?
Let’s take a closer look at this and see how it can be prevented.
Why Does CBD Oil Give Me Heartburn or GERD/GORD?
This can happen for a number of reasons, the most obvious one is down to the quality of the product you are using. With CBD not having any regulation (as of time of writing), means that companies can make products without a quality standard to work towards. Look at what the ingredients are, if there are flavourings and or extra additives in the product, they could be responsible. What is the carrier ingredient of the CBD you are using? This can be another key factor. Full spectrum, broad spectrum, potency and strength are other aspects that need looking into. If you are already on medication for something else or if you have suffered with heartburn before? These can also be accountable or can contribute towards the problems you are suffering from. Let’s take a more in depth look to why this may be the case.
Heartburn is something that affects a large number of people, with one in every four of UK adults and more than 60 million Americans, experience heartburn at least once a month.
Studies have suggested that more than 15 million Americans experience heartburn symptoms each day.
Do You Have Acid Reflux
The main symptoms are:
- heartburn – a burning sensation in the middle of your chest
- an unpleasant sour taste in your mouth, caused by stomach acid
- a cough or hiccups that keep coming back
- a hoarse voice
- bad breath
- bloating and feeling sick
Your symptoms might be worse after eating, when lying down and when bending over.
Causes of heartburn and acid reflux
A large number of people get heartburn from time to time and there’s no obvious reason why.
Sometimes it’s caused or made worse by the following:
- certain types of food and drink – such as coffee, tomatoes, alcohol, chocolate and fatty or spicy foods
- being overweight
- stress and anxiety
- some medicines, such as anti-inflammatory painkillers (ibuprofen)
- a hiatus hernia – the protrusion of the stomach, through the oesophageal opening in the diaphragm.
Always Check The Label
It’s one thing to have and get heartburn from time to time, it’s another to only have had it since taking CBD, but why is this?
With CBD being unregulated, means that any company can produce whatever they like and not be held accountable.
When buying CBD, it’s not only crucial but a must to check what’s in the product and where it came from.
Always check where the product was manufactured and what extra additives have been added. You also need to check for third party testing with laboratory results. All reputable companies should have these on their website, so look for these.
Companies can sneak in extra additives to reduce the cost of the product with a cheaper alternative.
A good rule of thumb is for the CBD to have three ingredients or less. The CBD extract, preferably hemp oil as the carrier oil and something for flavour would be the third ingredient such as peppermint or cinnamon.
There are a number of CBD carrier oils, so check the label and see whether this is something which you aren’t allergic to.
Some carrier oils include:
- Medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oil
- Hemp seed oil
- Olive oil
- Avocado oil
- Coconut oil
With regards to the flavouring aspect, make sure it’s natural in its make up and not an artificial sweetened flavouring.
If the oil is very weedy, full of sediment instead of being well strained and swallowed instead of taken sublingually, it can irritate and easily upset your stomach.
Interestingly, preclinical studies have shown that CBD may decrease acid reflux, helping to alleviate heartburn.
When CBD binds to the CB1 receptor, it may decrease excessive gastric acid while helping the lower esophagus to prevent reflux and increase blood flow to the stomach lining.
There is no evidence that CBD oil could make acid reflux or GERD/GORD worse.
The potency of the CBD being used should also be taken into consideration. How dense the dosage of some CBD oil can be varies dramatically.
For example, some oils require you to take an entire dropper to get the recommended dose. While other CBD oil only requires a few drops!
Always read the label and never go over what the manufacturer recommends.
What Type Of CBD Are You Using?
However, with CBD still being such an unknown quantity, it can have various different reactions to certain individuals.
Unlike conventional anti-acid reflux medications, CBD shouldn’t have dangerous side effects and is generally well tolerated in humans in doses of up to 1500mg on a daily basis.
An upset stomach, diarrhoea and gastrointestinal distress are not typically caused by cannabinoid oil itself, but rather by the ingredients used to deliver CBD oil into the body or flaws during the CBD production process.
If you vape CBD, consume it orally, or use it topically, it is completely fine to drink water normally without disrupting absorption.
However, if CBD is consumed sublingually (under the tongue) via a tincture, you should give the tincture at least 60 seconds for full absorption before drinking anything.
Technically, CBD is different from marijuana even though they are closely related.
Both have CBD (cannabidiol cannabinoid) in them as they belong to the classification under cannabis. However, CBD does not contain high levels of THC ((tetrahydrocannabinol).
THC is the most famous compound among all cannabinoids because of its ability to make a person feel “high”.
Specifically, the CBD that is derived from hemp is not considered psychotropic as full-spectrum CBD contains less than 0.3% THC.
Have You Been Here Before?
It goes without saying that if you are suffering from heartburn since taking CBD, it would be wise to stop doing so for a few days to see how your body reacts without it.
If after this period you haven’t had heartburn, then it’s safe to say you need to change the product you are using or stop using CBD completely.
If you are on any other type of medication for something else, its worth looking into the side effects of them to see if they are causing the heartburn.
Another simple thing to consider is your diet, are you eating or drinking any of the food and drink mentioned above?
The majority of food consumed might be completely fine for most people to eat, but to you could be problematic. We are all very familiar these days with various allergies such as peanuts etc.
If you have had heartburn even before taking CBD, then use the process of elimination to find out what the item is that is causing the irritation if you are able.
Its worth seeking the advice of your GP to see where you stand regarding getting blood tests done to see if you are allergic anything in particular.
How does Acid Reflux work?
Acid reflux occurs when the sphincter muscle at the lower end of your oesophagus relaxes at the wrong time, which allows stomach acid to back up into your oesophagus.
This can cause heartburn and other signs and symptoms. Frequent or constant reflux can lead to gastro oesophageal reflux disease (GORD).
Unlike the stomach, the oesophagus has no protection against the acid. Many people feel this sensation after eating too fast or consuming greasy, acidic or spicy foods.
From My Research, The Most Common Reason Is…
In my opinion, if you are getting heartburn while using CBD, it would be worth not taking it for a few days to see how your body reacts.
The majority of time there’s CBD related problems for people is purely down to the product they are using, that doesn’t agree with them for some reason or another.
Buying CBD is such a mine field and there’s no telling with some retailers what you are getting. Theres nothing to say a reputable retailers products may not agree with you either.
Theres no easy answer here, there could be some foods that react with the CBD, which is causing the problem.
However, if you are able to send the product back to get a refund, then look to do so and spend some more time researching which CBD or any other alternative may work for you.
Always seek the professional opinion from your doctor before trying CBD or any changes to your diet.